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Racism, Darwin, Hitler and the Bible
Definition of Racism
The belief that race
accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular
race is superior to others.
- ... hostile or oppressive
behaviour towards people because they belong to a different race.
- Discrimination or prejudice based on race.
Darwin - a racist
Darwin saw the
natives of Australia
and Negroes as being at the same level as gorillas. He believed that Blacks and Aborigines occupy a sub-species
between Apes and Caucasians
(i.e. Whites) and claimed that these races would disappear.
"At some future period, not very distant as
measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly
exterminate and replace the savage races throughout the world. At the same time
the anthropomorphous apes... will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man
and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in
a more civilized state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as
low as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian and the
The complete title of Darwin's famous book was
"The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of
Favored Races in the Struggle for Life". Darwin claimed that it was necessary for the
inferior races to disappear and bemoaned the fact that developed peoples try to
protect them and keep them alive. He compared this situation to people who bred
animals, "With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those
that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health. We civilised men, on
the other hand, do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build
asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor-laws; and
our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of every one to the
last moment. There is reason to believe that vaccination has preserved
thousands, who from a weak constitution would formerly have succumbed to
small-pox. Thus the weak members of civilised societies propagate their kind. No
one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this
must be highly injurious to the race of man." 
Darwin's racist disciples
was less racist than many of his disciples, especially Spencer, Haeckel, Hooton,
Pearson, and Huxley, his theory provided the basis for the later extreme racism.
Ernst Haeckel is actually called "the great ancestor of theoreticians of Nazi
H. Klaatsch, a prominent German evolutionist, concluded that human races
differ ... for the reason that they evolved from different primates. The Blacks
came from the gorillas, the Whites from the chimpanzees, and the Orientals from
the orangutans, and it is for this reason that some races are superior. He
concluded that "the gorilla and the Neanderthal man" have a close biological
affinity to "a large number of the living African blacks..."
In the 1920s, an article in the Encyclopedia Britannica, under the heading
'Negro', said that the inherent mental inferiority of the blacks was even more
marked than their physical differences and that no full blooded Negro has ever
been distinguished as a man of science, a poet, or an artist.
M. L. Moser (The Case Against Integration, 1974) says, "... American Negroes that have made contributions
to various fields, sports, science, etc., but... It is only that Negro that has a
mixture of white genes in his system that has risen to the level where he has
produced on the level with the white race."
Thomas Huxley was an English biologist, known as Darwin's Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles
Darwin's theory of evolution. He wrote: "No rational
man, cognizant of the facts, believes that the average Negro is the equal, still
less the superior, of the white man. And if this be true, it is simply
incredible that, when all his disabilities are removed, and our prognathous
relative has a fair field and no favor, as well as no oppressor, he will be able
to compete successively with his bigger-brained and smaller-jawed rival, in a
contest which is to be carried on by thoughts and not by bites."
The Theory of Evolution provides the basis for racism
In evolutionary theory, the survival advantage factor is the
chief explanation for the existence of most differences. Because these
differences result from the survival advantage that they confer upon an
organism, an evolutionist must assume differences between or within a group
likely exist because they provide some inherent survival advantage for the
animal. Since the key survival advantage of humankind over "lower animals" is
intelligence, consequently differences in this trait likely also exist between
the races. This is exactly whatDarwin
conclusion has justified a wide variety of governmental and scientific policies,
not the least infamous were racial genocide programs.
The two races most often compared are the "Caucasian" and
"Negroid," now commonly called the "white" and "black" races. The dominant
western cultural ethos, that whites were "superior" and blacks "inferior" and
more "ape-like," was commonly reflected in science books published from 1880 and
The widely used textbook, 'A Civic Biology' (George William
Hunter - 1914) which Scopes used in the class he taught in 1925 which became the
basis for the famous gy' (George William
Hunter - 1914) which Scopes used in the class he taught in 1925 which became
the basis for the Scopes Trial discussed
"man's place in nature."
Under the section of evolution, in an openly racist statement it concludes that
"At the present time there exist upon the earth five races each very different
from the other in instincts, social customs and... structure. These are the
Ethiopian or negro type... the Mongoloid or yellow race, and finally, the highest
type of all, Caucasians, represented by the civilized white inhabitants of
Europe and America."
Hitler - a Darwinian racist
The racial prejudice in
Darwin's theory was adopted by Hitler and
resulted in him exterminating handicapped, insane and those deemed racially
inferior in the HoHitler noted that one would not let a 2 million Mark thoroughbred
horse breed with a nag. He likewise felt that to advance the human race we must
"direct evolution" instead of letting natural forces and chance blindly produce.
Smith notes: "One of the central planks in Nazi theory and
doctrine was evolutionary theory [and]... that all biology had evolved... upward,
and that... less evolved types... should be actively eradicated [and] that natural
selection could and should be actively aided and therefore instituted political
measures to eradicate Jews, and blacks, whom they considered... underdeveloped."
In "Mein Kampf" Hitler spoke of "lower
human types." He criticized the Jews for bringing "Negroes into the cized the Jews for bringing "Negroes into the Rhineland" with the aim of "ruining the white race by the
necessarily resulting bastardization." He spoke of "Monstrosities halfway
between man and ape" and lamented the fact of Christians going to "
Hitler exterminated over 273,000 people even before the
Holocaust! "The first to be killed were the aged [those who are an economic
burden, who detract from the happiness of society as a whole], the infirm, the
senile, the mentally retarded, and defective children [that included
epileptics]. Then there were WWI veterans - amputees - still in hospitals. Their
reward for giving an arm or leg for
Germany was extermination as
'undesirable.' Even bed wetters and children with badly modeled ears were put
to death - all part of the euthanasia project of Germany."
contrasted with Darwinian Nazism
Ardent evolutionist Sir Arthur Keith wrote: "The leader of Germany not only in theory,
but, as millions know to their cost, in the rigor of its practice. For him, the 'national front' of Europe is also the
'evolutionary front;' he regards himself, and is regarded, as the incarnation of
the will of Germany, the purpose of that will being to guide the evolutionary
destiny of its people."
Keith highlights the difference between the evolutionary and
Christian world view, by saying "Christianity makes no distinction of race or of
color; it seeks to break down all racial barriers. In this respect the hand of
Christianity is against that of Nature, for are not the races of mankind the
evolutionary harvest which Nature has toiled through long ages to produce?"
While the influence of different races, the Bible says the following about those groups of
DISABLED - Lev 19:14 Do not curse the deaf or put a stumbling block in front of
the blind, but fear your God.
ELDERLY - Lev 19:32 Rise in the presence of the aged, show respect for the
elderly and revere your God.
ALIEN (FOREIGNER, DIFFERENT RACE) - Lev 19:33-34 When an alien lives with you
in your land, do not mistreat him. The alien living with you must be treated as
one of your native-born. Love him as yourself, for you were aliens in
Racism indefensible biologically
Racism is indefensible on moral, biological & Biblical
Scientists found that if any 2 people from anywhere in the
world were compared, the basic genetic differences between these 2 would
typically be around 0.2% - even if they came from the same people group. ple from anywhere in the world
were compared, the basic genetic differences between these 2 would typically be
around 0.2% - even if they came from the same people group.
So-called 'racial' characteristics that many think are major differences (skin
color, eye shape, etc.) account for only 6 percent of this 0.2% variation, which
amounts to a mere 0.012% difference genetically. In other words, the so-called
'racial' differences are absolutely trivial.
Recent IQ tests of people throughout the world have found that, with allowance
for cultural differences, the IQ ranges of all extant identified races is
The pygmy population of ho are acclimated
to the established E,
supposedly the most backward race extant today, test close to average when
acclimated to Western life. Few differences are found between the second and
third generation pygmies living in large Australian cities who are acclimated to
the established European population.
It is now widely accepted that, given equality of background and similarity of
experiences, blacks as a whole closely equal whites in across the-board
performance. This confirms prominent anthropologist, Ruth Benedict's early
conclusion that "the most careful investigation" shows there is no significant
difference between the scores of blacks and whites, even though it is difficult
to control for the accumulative effects of deprivation.
Most studies also find that Orientals and Jews score about 10 points higher than
Europeans. Reasons other than innate differences are often found to account for
this difference, and few scientists now accept the view that genetic differences
can account for the level found.
All races come from one woman
Darwinian evolutionists like H. Klaatsch explained the
"superiority" of some races by teaching that they evolved independently.
In contrast the Bible teaches us that all people come from common
parents i.e. Adam and Eve:
Modern scientific evidence is mounting in support of a single shared ancestor,
confirming what the Bible teaches.
The scientific evidence is increasingly indicating that indeed Adam
existed," says Dr. Fazale Rana, a biochemist.
Molecular anthropologists study mankind's origins by looking at
DNA, the molecule that contains our genes, which in turn form a sort of
blueprint used by our bodies to build new proteins-the building blocks of life.
Over time, DNA's structure can mutate through physical or chemical events or by
errors during cell division... Most mutations are harmful but don't get passed
on to future generations. But neutral or beneficial mutations are passed along.
Studying DNA sequence variations among population groups lets scientists learn
about human origins and migrations. Over time, a population becomes more
genetically diverse through breeding and
of the most common techniques for studying human origins won't help us find
Adam-but it might point to Eve. Mitochondrial DNA (a circular piece of DNA found
in mitochondria, which are in almost all cells in the body-especially muscle
cells) is a favorite for study because of its simple inheritance pattern and
quick mutation rate. But mitochondria comes only from the mother-the father
doesn't contribute any mitochondrial DNA to his child.
The amount of variation in this DNA acts as a sort of molecular clock and lets scientists
peer back in time to a day when there was no variation. Repeated studies of mitochondrial DNA in the last
two decades suggest that humanity originated from one woman.
This has caused even evolutionary scientists to revise their theories of independent streams of human
origin in favour of a single common woman they call "mitochondrial Eve."
Mitochondrial DNA won't lead us to Adam, but study of DNA associated with the Y chromosome might.
Women have two X chromosomes, while men have an X and a Y... The Y chromosome is what makes a man
a man... And it's passed from father to son...
Studies of variation in Y-chromosome DNA point to a common male ancestor dubbed "Y-chromosomal Adam".
Naturally evolutionary scientists use timescales based on their uniformitarian assumptions to "date"
mitochondrial Eve claiming that she lived 150,000 and 200,000 years ago (The Bible places her 6000 years ago).
Strangely, the same research techniques provide significantly different dates for the first man and first
woman. The Y-chromosomal Adam is dated by both Creationists & Evolutionists at a much more recent date
than mitochondrial Eve.
To explain this difference, scientists theorize that for some
reason males living before Y-chromosomal Adam failed to pass their genes along.
Some sort of "genetic bottleneck" must have killed off other men. But what?
'Reasons to Believe' founder, Dr. Hugh Ross says the answer should be clear to
anyone who is familiar with Scripture. "You consistently see an earlier date for
mitochondrial Eve than for Y-chromosomal Adam, and this is called the 'younger
Adam' paradox-but it's exactly what you'd expect from biblical history," he
 Noting that a lot of
genetic lines came to an end during the great flood, Ross says, "On Noah's ark
all of the men were related by blood to Noah. So you'd expect a bottleneck- not
at Adam, but at Noah. Their wives were not related to one another, so the
mitochondrial DNA variations would go back farther. Only from a biblical
perspective would you predict such a difference."
So in fact Y-chromosomal Adam is actually the Biblical Noah.
While all of our Y-chromosome DNA goes back to Noah, he inherited it from Adam -
the father of us all.
The Flood destroyed all except Noah's line:
All people alive on earth are descended from Noah's 3 sons:
The Bible teaches us that all men are made "in the image of
God" and are distinct from the animals. It is only on the basis of the false
theory of Evolution, which teaches that man is just a highly evolved ape, that
one can justify racism.
Racism indefensible Biblically
The mark of Cain
One of the attempts to justify racism from the Bible is the
reference in Genesis 4 to the mark of Cain. God declared that Cain was cursed,
and placed a mark upon him. Some racists claim that this mark was God giving
him a black skin.
the Bible does not indicate what the mark was.
the mark of Cain was for his protection by warning others that killing Cain
would provoke the vengeance of God.
Gen 4:13-15 Cain said to the LORD, "My punishment is more than I can bear. Today
you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I
will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me."
But the LORD said to him, "Not so; if anyone kills Cain, he will suffer
vengeance seven times over."
Then the LORD put a mark on Cain so that no one
who found him would kill him.
Thirdly, in any event Cain's line was destroyed at the Flood as Noah descended from
Seth. We have already seen from Gen 9:18-19 that all people alive on earth are
descended from Noah.
The curse on Ham?
Another attempt to justify racism from the Bible is the claim by
some racists that Noah cursed Ham (Gen 9) saying that his descendants would be
the servants of his brothers. As Ham was the father of the African races, the
claim is that they are under a curse and should be subservient to the other
Now it is true that the African races descended from Cush (Ethiopia
& Sudan), Put (Libya) and Mizraim (Egypt) - all sons of Ham.
Josephus writes, "For of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name
of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by
themselves and by all men in
Chusites. The memory also of the Mesraites is preserved in their name; for all
we who inhabit this country [of
Egypt Mestre, and the Egyptians Mestreans. Phut also was the founder of
Libya... Canaan, the
fourth son of Ham, inhabited the country now called Judea, and called it from
his own name
But this view is based on a half-truth.
(the fourth son of Ham) was cursed, not Ham!
The curse of Canaan was fulfilled when the Israelites
conquered Canaan. Canaan does not exist as a
nation today while other Hamitic nations still exist - Egypt, Ethiopia
God is impartial (not biased)
The Bible teaches that God is impartial:
We too must be impartial
We are instructed to also be impartial in our dealings with
And he [Peter] said to them, "You yourselves know how unlawful it is for a man
who is a Jew to associate with a foreigner or to visit him; and yet God has
shown me that I should not call any man unholy or unclean." (Acts 10:28)
The word translated 'foreigner' (Strong's number G246) is allophulos, from
Strong's number G243 and phulon, which has the meaning "a stock, race, of
another race or foreigner."
Let me now be partial to no one; Nor flatter any man. (Job 32:21)These also are sayings of the wise. To show partiality in judgment is not good.
To show partiality is not good... (Proverbs 28:21)
I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of His
chosen angels, to maintain these principles without bias, doing nothing in a
spirit of partiality. (1 Timothy 5:21)
You shall not distort justice; you shall not be partial, and you shall not take
a bribe, for a bribe blinds the eyes of the wise and perverts the words of the
righteous. (Deut 16:19)
Now then let the fear of the LORD be upon you; be very careful what you do, for
the LORD our God will have no part in unrighteousness, or partiality, or the
taking of a bribe.
(2 Chron 19:7)
You shall do no injustice in judgment; you shall not be partial to the poor nor
defer to the great, but you are to judge your neighbor fairly. (Leviticus 19:15)
In the following passage, James is specifically addressing
favoritism shown to wealthier individuals who visit the church. This command,
however, is applicable to showing favoritism for any characteristic, including
James 2:1 My brothers, as believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ, don't
show favoritism. 2 Suppose a man comes into your meeting wearing a gold ring and
fine clothes, and a poor man in shabby clothes also comes in. 3 If you show
special attention to the man wearing fine clothes and say, "Here's a good seat
for you," but say to the poor man, "You stand there" or "Sit on the floor by my
feet," 4 have you not discriminated among yourselves and become judges with evil
thoughts? ... 8 If you really keep the royal law found in Scripture, "Love your
neighbor as yourself," you are doing right. 9 But if you show favoritism, you
sin and are convicted by the law as lawbreakers.
The same Law must apply to aliens
Lev 24:22 You are to have the same law for the alien and the native-born.
The same law shall apply to the native as to the stranger who sojourns among
you. (Exodus 12:49)
There shall be one standard for you; it shall be for the stranger as well as the
native... (Leviticus 24:22)
Deut 1:16-17 And I charged your judges at that time: Hear the disputes between your
brothers and judge fairly, whether the case is between brother Israelites or
between one of them and an alien. Do not show partiality in judging; hear
both small and great alike. Do not be afraid of any man, for judgment belongs to
Deut 24:17 Do not deprive the alien or the fatherless of justice, or take the
cloak of the widow as a pledge. 18 Remember that you were slaves in
Egypt and the LORD
your God redeemed you from there. That is why I command you to do this.
Africa we can easily apply this study to the
memories of Apartheid and the lingering racial hatred some still have for fellow
South Africans. However we also see how foreigners (e.g. Zimbabweans, Zambians,
Nigerians) are still mistreated and victimised in our country. Just recently in May 2008 we saw the xenophobic
killing of 66 people, displacement of some 6000 African foreigners and the
subsequent looting of property. The Bible says:
When a stranger resides with you in your land, you shall not do him wrong.
Thus says the LORD, "Do justice and righteousness, and deliver the one who has
been robbed from the power of his oppressor. Also do not mistreat or do violence
to the stranger, the orphan, or the widow; and do not shed innocent blood in
this place." (Jer 22:3)
And you shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the
Egypt. (Exodus 22:21)
And you shall not oppress a stranger, since you yourselves know the feelings of
a stranger, for you also were strangers in the
Leviticus 19:10 Nor shall you glean your vineyard, nor shall you gather the
fallen fruit of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the needy and for the
Deut 24:19-22 When you are harvesting in your field and you overlook a sheaf, do
not go back to get it. Leave it for the alien, the fatherless and the widow, so
that the LORD your God may bless you in all the work of your hands. When you
beat the olives from your trees, do not go over the branches a second time.
Leave what remains for the alien, the fatherless and the widow. When you
harvest the grapes in your vineyard, do not go over the vines again. Leave what
remains for the alien, the fatherless and the widow. Remember that you were
That is why I command you to do this.
Lev 25:35 If one of your countrymen becomes poor and is unable to support
himself among you, help him as you would an alien or a temporary resident, so he
can continue to live among you.
Ps 146:9 The LORD watches over the alien and sustains the fatherless and the
widow, but he frustrates the ways of the wicked.
Deut 24:14-15 Do not take advantage of a hired man who is poor and needy, whether
he is a brother Israelite or an alien living in one of your towns. Pay him
his wages each day before sunset, because he is poor and is counting on it.
Otherwise he may cry to the LORD against you, and you will be guilty of sin.
... do not oppress the widow or the orphan, the stranger or the poor; and do not
devise evil in your hearts against one another. (Zechariah 7:10)
Jer 7:5-7 If you really change your ways and your actions and deal with each other
justly, if you do not oppress the alien, the fatherless or the widow and do
not shed innocent blood in this place, and if you do not follow other gods to
your own harm, then I will let you live in this place, in the land I gave your
forefathers for ever and ever.
of non-Israelite people in the Bible
We find the acceptance and honouring of non-Israelite (and
non-Semitic) people in Scripture:
The list of David's honoured Mighty Men included Zelek the Ammonite, Ithmah the
Moabite and Uriah the Hittite, all non-Israelite peoples. (1 Chron 11:26-47)
Rahab, the Canaanite from
assisted the Israelite spies at risk of her life and was one of the ancestors of
Jesus. (Matt 1:5)
Ruth, the Moabite, would not desert her mother-in-law or God, even when her
husband died. She too is listed in the genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1:5)
The Queen of
Sheba - The actual
Sheba is disputed
between southern Arabia (Yemen)
and eastern Africa (Ethiopia).
Jesus said, "The Queen of the South will rise at the judgment with this
generation and condemn it; for she came from the ends of the earth to listen to
Solomon's wisdom..." (Matt 12:42)
The prophet Jeremiah was freed from the cistern he had been thrown into by
Ebed-Melech, an Ethiopian.
Jer 38:6-10 So they took Jeremiah and
put him into the cistern of Malkijah, the king's son, which was in the courtyard
of the guard. They lowered Jeremiah by ropes into the cistern; it had no water
in it, only mud, and Jeremiah sank down into the mud. But Ebed-Melech, a
Cushite, an official in the royal palace, heard that they had put Jeremiah into
the cistern. While the king was sitting in the Benjamin Gate, Ebed-Melech went
out of the palace and said to him, "My lord the king, these men have acted
wickedly in all they have done to Jeremiah the prophet. They have thrown him
into a cistern, where he will starve to death when there is no longer any bread
in the city."
Then the king commanded Ebed-Melech the Cushite, "Take thirty men from here with
you and lift Jeremiah the prophet out of the cistern before he dies."
God subsequently rewards Ebed-Melech:
Jer 39:16-18 "Go and tell Ebed-Melech the Cushite,
'This is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, says: I am about to fulfill
my words against this city through disaster, not prosperity. At that time they
will be fulfilled before your eyes. But I will rescue you on that day, declares
the LORD; you will not be handed over to those you fear. I will save you; you
will not fall by the sword but will escape with your life, because you trust in
me, declares the LORD.'"
As a child, Jesus was sheltered in
from Herod. (Matt 1:13)
Jesus' cross was carried by an African, Simon of Cyrene (in
Mark 15:21 And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who
passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear
It is in Romans 16:13 that we have Paul's reference to Rufus, "Salute Rufus
chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine."
According to the patristic writing of the second century the gospel of Mark was
written for the Roman Christians. If this is true, it would make sense that Mark
would identify Simon of Cyrene (a Libyan) as the father of Rufus and Alexander,
two men that the Roman Christians would know. None of the other gospel writers
include the names of the sons. So perhaps the Rufus that Paul greets is the same
Rufus that Mark writes about. It is a good possibility.
Paul emphasizes that Rufus is chosen in the Lord in Romans 16:13. Rufus must
have been a willing follower of Christ. But this also tells us that Simon not
only accepted Christ as his Savior, but he passed on the gospel message to his
One of the first converts to Christianity was from
And he arose and went; and behold, there was an
Ethiopian eunuch, a court official of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was
in charge of all her treasure; and he had come to
Jerusalem to worship.... And he ordered the chariot
to stop; and they both went down into the water, Philip as well as the eunuch;
and he baptized him. (Acts 8:27,38)
The early African church
Many of the early Church fathers were
Tertullian, who articulated the doctrine of the Trinity, was from Carthage in what today is Tunisia.
Cyprian was the bishop of
and an important early Christian writer.
Augustine who articulated the doctrine of Grace was from Hippo (present-day Annaba, Algeria).
Athanasius, the famous defender of the doctrine of the Trinity at the Council of Nicea, was from Alexandria in Egypt.
Clement headed the Christian school at
Christianity grew much more
rapidly in Africa than in any other western
It was firmly established in Carthage
and other Tunisian towns by the 3rd century and had produced its own local
martyrs and an outstanding apologist in Tertullian (c. 160-240). During the next
50 years it expanded remarkably; more than 80 bishops attended a council at
Carthage in 256...
The early church recognized 5
patriarchs who oversaw large geographical areas: the bishops of
Antioch, Constantinople and
Rome. 4 of these 5 centres fell to Islamic
Islam arrived in North Africa in 639, just 7 years after the death of Muhammad.
The invading Arab forces came from Mecca under the leadership of the military ruler
Amr ibn al-Asi. Islam claimed the whole of North Africa
in what were once the lands of great Christian leaders and famous writers such
as Tertullian, Athanasius, Cyprian, Clement and Augustine.
Abolition of slavery
In our studies on "The kingdom" we
saw how Alexander Mackay (in Uganda),
General Charles Gordon (in Sudan)
and David Livingstone (in Central Africa)
opposed the slave trade (which was racially based) on Christian grounds. We also
saw how John Newton, a converted former slave trader influenced William
Wilberforce, a young Christian British politician who subsequently became the
chief instrument in banning slavery
from the British empire.
Racial change of the modern church
In 1900, Christians in Europe constituted 68% of all the
Christians in the world, and those in North America,
14%. This means that 4 out of 5 Christians in the world were in these 2
continents. On the contrary, Christians in Africa constituted only 2%, and those
in Asia, 4%.
In 2000, however, Christians in Europe shrank into 28% of all
Christians, and those in North America, 13%.
But Christians in Africa noticeably increased into 18%, and those in Asia, 16%. The proportion of Latin American Christians to the
world Christians increased from 11% to 24%.
The African Church
After the Chinese church, the African church is the second
fastest growing church in the world. In 1900 only 3% Christian. Today
sub-Saharan Africa is 50% Christian. 25,000 new
believers in Africa daily.
The Samaritans were foreign people that Assyria brought in to
populate the Northern Kingdom of Israel
(Samaria was the
capital) after the native Israelites had been deported. The mixing of their own
pagan religious practices with the worship of the LORD led the Israelites to
despise the Samaritans. They practiced a form of syncretism in their worship:
2 Kings 17:28 So one of the priests who had been exiled from
came to live in
and taught them how to worship the LORD. 29 Nevertheless, each national group
made its own gods in the several towns where they settled, and set them up in
the shrines the people of Samaria had made at the high places ... 32 They
worshiped the LORD, but they also appointed all sorts of their own people to
officiate for them as priests in the shrines at the high places. 33 They
worshiped the LORD, but they also served their own gods in accordance with the
customs of the nations from which they had been brought.
The term "Samaritan" was USED AS AN INSULT:
The Samaritans and Jews were segregated and would not even
associate with one another. John records that the Samaritan woman said to Jesus,
"You are a Jew and I am a Samaritan woman. How can you ask me for a drink?" He
then adds an explanation, "For Jews do not associate with Samaritans." (John
Jesus was unwelcome at a certain Samaritan village:
In retaliation James and John asked Jesus, "Lord, do you want us
to call fire down from heaven to destroy them?" Jesus rebuked the brothers
saying, "You do not know what kind of spirit you are of, for the Son of Man did
not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them."
Luke in particular details Jesus dealings and positive comments
about the Samaritans (perhaps because Luke himself was a Gentile). He relates
how of the 10 people healed from leprosy, only the Samaritan thanked Jesus and
was commended accordingly.
Lk 17:15-18 One of them, when he saw he was healed, came back,
praising God in a loud voice. He threw himself at Jesus' feet and thanked
him-and he was a Samaritan. Jesus asked, "Were not all ten cleansed? Where are
the other nine? Was no one found to return and give praise to God except this
Luke also records the parable of the "Good Samaritan" (this term
would have been considered somewhat of an oxymoron by the Jews).
Jesus took the time to witness to the Samaritan woman at the well. At their request he stayed in the village of the despised Samaritans
(Sychar), evangelizing for 2 days.
Jn 4:39-41 Many of the Samaritans from that town believed in him because of the
woman's testimony, "He told me everything I ever did." So when the Samaritans
came to him, they urged him to stay with them, and he stayed two days. And
because of his words many more became believers./ul>
Jesus clearly considered them to be part of the "lost sheep of
Israel as the
second evangelical target for the apostles:
"But you will receive power when the
Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in
Jerusalem, and in all Judea and
Samaria, and to the ends of the earth." (Acts 1:8)
Acts 8:1 On that day a great persecution broke out against the church at
Jerusalem, and all except the apostles were scattered
throughout Judea and
Acts 8:4-5 Those who had been scattered preached the word wherever they went.
Philip went down to a city in
and proclaimed the Christ there.
Acts 8:14-15 When the apostles in
had accepted the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them. When they
arrived, they prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit...
Acts 8:25 When they had testified and proclaimed the word of the Lord, Peter and
John returned to
preaching the gospel in many Samaritan villages.
Love your neighbour
Jesus said "You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor
and hate your enemy.' But I tell you: Love your enemies..."
(Matt 5:43-44). Interestingly the OT only tells us to "... love your neighbor as
yourself." (Lev 19:8) The people of Jesus' day had added the "hate your enemy"
part by redefining who their "neighbour" was. This explains the second question
in the following passage:
On one occasion an expert in the law stood up to test Jesus. "Teacher," he
asked, "what must I do to inherit eternal life?"
"What is written in the Law?" he replied. "How do you read it?"
He answered: "'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul
and with all your strength and with all your mind' ; and, 'Love your neighbor as
"You have answered correctly," Jesus replied. "Do this and you will live."
But he wanted to justify himself, so he asked Jesus, "And who is my neighbor?"
In reply to the question "who is my neighbour?" Jesus tells the
parable of the Good Samaritan, where the "hero" is the despised Samaritan. (Lk
In summary to the parable Jesus asks, "Which of these three do
you think was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers?" The expert in the law replied, "The one who had mercy on him." Jesus told him, "Go and do likewise." (Lk 10:36-37) So Jesus showed that the "love your neighbour" command included
people of different race.
In addition the OT had explicitly mentioned that the Israelites
were to love strangers and aliens as themselves:
The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as the native among you, and
you shall love him as yourself; for you were aliens in the
Deut 10:17 For the LORD... defends the
cause of the fatherless and the widow, and loves the alien, giving him food and
clothing. And you are to love those who are aliens, for you yourselves were
What did Adam look like?
One thing's almost certain: He wasn't white. Dr. A.J. Monty
think that one of the most common misconceptions that Christians have about Adam
(and Eve, for that matter) is the colour of his skin."
He adds: "Most people in the West tend to think of Adam and Eve
as having fair or white skin. If you think about it, if Adam and Eve had pale
skin, you would not have dark-skinned people because they would not have the
genes for producing dark skin. On the other hand, if Adam and Eve were
dark-skinned, you would not have fair-skinned people as their genes would not
have the ability to produce light-coloured skin. Adam and Eve must have been
mid-toned (perhaps mid-brown) in order for us to have all the shades of brown
exhibited by humans on the earth today."
For that matter, Jesus was not European, but Jewish - a people
that have suffered much racial abuse.
Hitler's view on Intermarriage
Instead of letting chance factors dominate reproduction
decisions, Hitler proposed that the scientists use the power of the state to
influence these decisions so that the gene pool would shift to what "informed
conclusions" concluded was the desired direction. Consequently, Hitler
encouraged those individuals that he perceived as having Aryan traits to mate,
and discouraged "interbreeding," supposing that this policy would gradually
cause the Aryan race to evolve "upward". He believed that the Nazi race programs
would further evolution by intelligently deciding which traits were not
beneficial, and preventing those with them from reproducing.
An important argument that Hitler used to support his programs of
racial genocide of the Jews, Blacks and other groups was that they were
genetically "inferior" and that their interbreeding with the superior Aryan race
would adversely affect the latter's gene pool, polluting it, and lowering the
overall quality of the "pure race."
Is intermarriage a sin?
Is intermarriage between different races a sin?
The God-given natural law for each creature to reproduce according to its 'kind'
may be applied to man: since there were only two humans, Adam and Eve, and all
people descended from them, there is no Biblical mandate against racial
What about God forbidding the Israelites to intermarry with the
God's prohibition against intermarriage with the Canaanite and
other peoples of the land was not based on racial but rather the religious and
societal practices of those peoples. Using this prohibition to support racist
theories of superiority or segregationist policy is inaccurate.
God did not give the Israelites the land of an 'innocent' or 'inferior' people
(the Canaanites), but rather of a wicked people whose religious practices were
an abomination to God. This verse shows that God delayed the entry of Israel into the land
until the magnitude of the Amorites' sin justified their annihilation.
Exodus 34:15-16 Be careful not to make a treaty with those who live in the land
(Canaanites and related peoples); for when they prostitute themselves to their
gods and sacrifice to them, they will invite you and you will eat their
sacrifices. And when you choose some of their daughters as wives for your sons
and those daughters prostitute themselves to their gods, they will lead your
sons to do the same.
This is the initial warning to
about intermarriage with the peoples of Canaan
whose abominable pagan religious practices were the reason God was giving them
the land. Adopting those practices would turn Israel from God, and this was the reason
for prohibition of intermarriage and contact in general.
1 Kings 11:1-3 King Solomon, however, loved many foreign women besides Pharoah's
daughter - Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians and Hittites. They were from
nations about which the Lord had told the Israelites, "You must no intermarry
with them, because they will surely turn your hearts after their gods."
Nevertheless, Solomon held fast to them in love. He had seven hundred wives of
royal birth and three hundred concubines, and his wives led him astray.
The 'greatest' King of Israel serves as the greatest example of
the result of the sin of intermarriage with pagan women. The subsequent idolatry
of the soon-to-be-divided nation of Israel/Judah, which led to their eventual
conquest and removal from the land by foreign empires, is directly traceable to
disobeying God's commands concerning intermixing with the pagan peoples. 
David's wife Macaah was a Geshurite, an Aramean (2 Samuel 3:3).
Moses married a woman from Cush
In other words, Moses married a black woman.
As a result of the marriage Aaron and Miriam challenged his
leadership. God forcefully supports Moses with no condemnation of the marriage.
Numbers 12:9 The anger of the LORD burned against them, and he left them. 10
When the cloud lifted from above the Tent, there stood Miriam-leprous, like
snow. Aaron turned toward her and saw that she had leprosy; 11 and he said to
Moses, "Please, my lord, do not hold against us the sin we have so foolishly
Ruth, the Moabitess, was part of Jesus' genealogy. (Matt 1:5) The descendants of
Ham, who were cursed, were the Canaanites. Yet, when Rahab, a Canaanite, came to
faith in the true God, she not only married a believer, but was included in the
family line leading to Christ. (Matt 1:5)
In the NT, Paul again shows that being unequally yoked (e.g. in
marriage) is not a racial issue, but occurs when a believer marries an
The prototype Christian church
The church in Antioch
The home church of Paul & Barnabas
Acts 11:22 News of this reached the ears of the church at
Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas to
Antioch. 23 When he arrived and saw the evidence of the
grace of God, he was glad and encouraged them all to remain true to the Lord
with all their hearts. 24 He was a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and faith,
and a great number of people were brought to the Lord. 25 Then Barnabas went to
to look for Saul, 26 and when he found him, he brought him to
Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met
with the church and taught great numbers of people.
The name "Christian" originated in
Praying & fasting church
A church with verifiable prophetic gifts
A generous & giving church
Acts 11:29-30 The disciples, each according to his ability, decided to provide
help for the brothers living in
they did, sending their gift to the elders by Barnabas and Saul.
A growing church
- Acts 11:20-21 ...
The Lord's hand was with them, and a great number of people believed and turned
to the Lord.
First mission church
The gospel spread from the
church because of persecution, but at
they sought God's face and obeyed His mission call.
- Acts 13:1-3 In the church at
While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, "Set
apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them."
So after they had fasted and prayed, they placed their hands on them and sent
Teaching and preaching church
- Acts 15:35 But Paul and Barnabas remained in
Antioch, where they and many others taught and preached
the word of the Lord.
A church concerned with doctrinal accuracy
Acts 15:1 Some men came down from Judea to
and were teaching the brothers: "Unless you are circumcised, according to the
custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved." 2 This brought Paul and Barnabas
into sharp dispute and debate with them. So Paul and Barnabas were appointed,
along with some other believers, to go up to
Jerusalem to see the apostles and elders about
this question ... 5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the
Pharisees stood up and said, "The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to
obey the law of Moses." 6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question.
First multiracial church!!!
In addition to all this Antioch was the first multiracial church - it was
founded by Greeks & black disciples!
Acts 11:19 Now those who had been scattered by the persecution in connection
with Stephen traveled as far as
Antioch, telling the message only to Jews. 20 Some
of them, however, men from
Cyrene, went to
Antioch and began to speak to Greeks also, telling
them the good news about the Lord Jesus. Two of the prophets / teachers were
- Acts 13:1 In the church at
Antioch there were
prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon called
Lucius of Cyrene,
Manaen... and Saul.
So the church had African, European and
Middle Eastern disciples.
Should different races be segregated and not mix?
Nowhere is racial separation or superiority taught or condoned.
In John 4:9, John wrote that "Jews do not associate with Samaritans"
(segregation), yet Peter and John ministered to the Samaritans (Acts 8:25). The
interaction of Jews and Gentiles, the 'segregation' of the day in Israel, was specifically condemned by Paul when Peter
visited the multiracial church in
Gal 2:11 When Peter came to
I opposed him to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong. 12 Before
certain men came from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles. But when they
arrived, he began to draw back and separate himself from the Gentiles because he
was afraid of those who belonged to the circumcision group... 14 When I saw that
they were not acting in line with the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in
front of them all, "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a
Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?"
When William Carey went as a missionary to India, the conversion of Hindus to
Christianity posed a new question as to whether it was appropriate for converts
to retain their caste. In 1802, the daughter of Krishna Pal, a Sudra, married a
Brahmin. This wedding was a public demonstration that the church repudiated the
The A/G in Apartheid SA
Despite the racial segregation of churches in "Apartheid" South Africa,
the A/G was quite unique in having a racially mixed executive in this period. In
1940 Nicholas Bhengu became a member of the first multi-racial executive
Nicholas Bhengu was an early pioneer of the A/G in SA. When
Bhengu was a young man somebody had given him a car, a great experience for
anybody. In his elation he set out from Durban
to motor to Johannesburg
with his wife, Mylet and Mr and Mrs Alfred Gumede, his friends. At
Pietermaritzburg he remembered that he needed a cake of soap. He parked his car
and went into a department store to buy the cake of soap. Serving at the counter
was a young woman. Seeing Bhengu she said abruptly, "Yes, boy, what do you
What gratuitous discourtesy!
Bhengu's gorge rose. "Madam" he said, "I'm not a boy. In fact, I'm older than
you are. In any case, I am a customer whom you are called upon to serve."
The young woman paled with rage. Her teeth literally chattered with anger. The
floor manager noticed that something was amiss and intervened. He gave Bhengu
his soap. Bhengu in turn selected from his wallet the largest note he had,
ostentatiously counted his change, and sauntered out of the store twirling his
car keys on his forefinger, whistling insouciantly to himself. The very picture
of insolence. Back in his car, his friends voiced their approval. "Jolly good!
You gave her just what she needed". But at the same time he felt something was
amiss. He drove on his way up Town Hill out of Pietermaritzburg on to Howick.
As he drew into Howick, he stopped, did a U-turn and turned back to 'Maritzburg.
"I have to go back", he said.
The young lady blanched when she saw him. The floor manager looked concerned.
"Yes? Yes?" he said. "What's the problem?"
Bhengu answered with downcast gaze, "Sir" he said, "I have come to apologise.
I'm a Christian; I had no right to speak as I did. Jesus would not have done it
like that. Please forgive me!"
Mike Attlee was a young unconverted man with a promising Rugby future, but tragedy struck early in his married life
when his first son, Anthony, was born brain-damaged and blind. Mike's
sister-in-law Thelma Botha visited the Attlees to tell them about the Zulu A/G
evangelist Nicholas Bhengu and his wonderful healing powers, advising them that
he would be in PE shortly and suggesting they request prayer for their child.
Mike was full of unbelief and pride. His blood boiled at her
suggestion. Instead of being grateful for Thelma's concern over his baby, he
responded by saying, "No thank you! No 'black' is going to lay hands on my
Thelma was shocked at his attitude. She replied, "Mike, you are more sick than
Her words stung the vanity of the young football star... He gently took Thelma by
the shoulder, propelled her to the door, and said, "Please leave my home; and
never, ever, enter it again!"
Mike's father, Wilfred, not yet saved, persuaded his reluctant
son to ask Bhengu to pray for Anthony. When Mike located John Bond in order to
make contact with Nicholas Bhengu, John explained the way of salvation to him
and he accepted Jesus as his Lord and Saviour. When Bhengu prayed for Anthony,
the little boy born blind was able to see. Although born brain-damaged, Anthony
subsequently walked, talked and even went to school. His miraculous recovery
brought much joy and blessing to the Attlee
family until the Lord took him home 11
years later. Many came to Christ through Anthony's story and the Attlees'
 Mike Attlee went
into full time ministry and ultimately oversaw what became known as the Coastal
Segregation (Apartheid) in heaven?
Understandably racism cuts both ways:
George Mtanzima, then President of the Transkei
visited the Back to God East London Convention and spoke there. Bhengu had no
choice but to open the platform to him. His speech somewhat embarrassed Bhengu
with its racialism. Mtanzima expatiated on heaven. He said, "If I get to heaven
and there's a white man there, I'll walk out!"
Bhengu had to wait until the following day in Mtanzima's absence to repudiate
the statement. He did so with characteristic wit, "If you get to heaven," he
asked, "And there's a white man there and you walk out, where will you walk to?
There are plenty of white men in the other place".
Before the abolition of slavery in the
U.S., some southern
churches taught that there would be a separate place for Negroes in heaven.
However in heaven John sees people from every nation, tribe, people & tongue:
After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no one could
count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before
the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were
in their hands; and they cry out with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation to our
God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb." (Rev 7:9-10)
- Rev 5:9-10 And they sang a new song: "You are worthy to take the scroll and to
open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased men
for God from every tribe and language and people and nation. You have made them
to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth."
In John 3:16 we are told that "For God so loved the world that he
gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but
have eternal life."
1 Cor 12:12 The body is a unit, though it is made up of many parts; and though
all its parts are many, they form one body. So it is with Christ. 13 For we were
all baptized by one Spirit into one body - whether Jews or Greeks, slave or
free - and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.
God makes no distinction based on race, gender, education level
or social status:
Gal 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for
you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Col 3:11 Here there is no
Greek or Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free,
but Christ is all, and is in all.
And they will declare My glory among the nations. (Isaiah 66:19)
All nations are blessed by the Messiah - Jesus:
And I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven, and will give your
descendants all these lands; and by your descendants all the nations of the
earth shall be blessed; (Genesis 26:4)
Then it will come about in that day that the nations will resort to the root of
Jesse, who will stand as a signal for the peoples; And His resting place will be
glorious. (Isaiah 11:10)
Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I
have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations. (Isaiah
He says, "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the
tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved ones of
Israel; I will also
make You a light of the nations so that my salvation may reach to the end of the
earth." (Isaiah 49:6)
While Jesus' personal ministry was spent with the Jewish nation
(Matthew 15:24), He did minister to non-Jews (Gentiles) who called upon him (the
woman of Canaan in Matthew 15:22, the Samaritan
leper in Luke 17:16, and the Roman centurion in Matthew 8). The New Covenant,
however, was for all people and the disciples were given the Great Commission to
spread it to all, regardless of race. Before leaving, Jesus told the apostles to
make disciples from every nation, reaffirming the value of all people.
Salvation is for all - no difference between Jew & Gentile:
Rom 10:11-13 As the Scripture says, "Anyone who trusts in him will never be put
For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile-the same Lord is Lord of all
and richly blesses all who call on him, for, "Everyone who calls on the name of
the Lord will be saved."
After writing that all men (Jew and Gentile in Romans 3:9-10) are
equally guilty of sin, Paul writes that the true heirs of Abraham and his
promise are those people of all nations who believe.
Romans 4:16-17 Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be by grace
and may be guaranteed to all Abraham's offspring - not only to those who are of
the law but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham. He is the father of
us all. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations..."
On the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9-11) the gospel was preached to
The Middle East (Iran,
In Acts we see how the Middle-Eastern Samaritans (Acts 8:5-25), a
black Ethiopian (Acts 8:26-39) and white Roman Gentiles (Acts 10) all receive
the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
Do you love your brother?
We have already seen by Jesus telling the parable of the good
Samaritan in the context of the "love your neighbour" question that he
considered different racial groups to be brothers. Jesus' disciple John, who
once wanted to call down fire on a Samaritan villag
A RACIST IS A LIAR
- 1 John 4:20-21 If anyone says, "I love God," yet hates his brother, he is a
liar. For anyone who does not love his brother, whom he has seen, cannot love
God, whom he has not seen. And he has given us this command: Whoever loves God
must also love his brother.
A RACIST IS NOT JESUS' DISCIPLE
John 13:34-35 "A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you,
so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my
disciples, if you love one another."
A RACIST DOES NOT OBEY GOD'S COMMANDS
- 1 John 3:23-24 And this is his command: to believe in the name of his Son, Jesus
Christ, and to love one another as he commanded us. Those who obey his commands
live in him, and he in them.
Rob Frazier sings in "The things I say":
- I say I believe that we're all the same
Then I find myself placing blame
For the way things are, the mess we're in
According to the colour of somebody's skin
I say I say what I believe
Do I believe the things I say?
I say my flesh has learned to die
But that's a lie
Please help me
A RACIST DOES NOT KNOW GOD
- 1 John 4:7-8 Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God.
Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love
does not know God, because God is love.
A RACIST IS A CHILD OF THE DEVIL
- 1 John 3:10-12 This is how we know who the children of God are and who the
children of the devil are: Anyone who does not do what is right is not a child
of God; nor is anyone who does not love his brother. This is the message you
heard from the beginning: We should love one another. Do not be like Cain, who
belonged to the evil one and murdered his brother.
A RACIST WILL NOT HAVE ETERNAL LIFE
- 1 John 3:15 Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no
murderer has eternal life in him.
A RACIST IS STILL IN DARKNESS (i.e. not
- 1 John 2:9 Anyone who claims to be in the light but hates his brother is still
in the darkness.
The Greek word for brother (adelphos) is used widely in the New Testament to
denote a neighbor (Luke 10:29), the 'brethren' of Jesus bound by belief in Him
(Matthew 25:40 and Mark 3:35), and is widened to include all human believers and
angels (Revelation 22:9). Thus, hatred of any person for any reason, including
race, is sinful.
So if you are a racist:
you can call yourself a Darwinian evolutionist
you can even call yourself a Nazi
but you cannot call yourself a Christian!
 The Descent of Man -
 Leon Poliakov, The
Aryan Myth (1974)
Darwinism, Evolution, and Racism - Dr. Jerry Bergman
Wikipedia: Thomas Henry Huxley
Darwinism, Evolution, and Racism - Dr. Jerry Bergman
 "The Scientific
Origin of National Socialism" (1971) by Daniel Gasman
 "The Day Nazi
Died" (1982) by Beate Wilder-Smith
Universe" by Professor Robert Jastrow
 Keith was a strong
proponent of the Piltdown Man and might have been a co-conspirator of the hoax
along with Charles Dawson.
"Evolution and Ethics" (1947) by Arthur Keith
"Creationists Link Evolution to Racism" Impact, Aug 2000, Coral Ridge
Ministries, Fort Lauderdale,
Darwinism, Evolution, and Racism - Dr. Jerry Bergman
 Doug Trouten (New
Man Magazine) - Sep/Oct 2005
Antiquities of the Jews - Chapter 6:2
 The chief executive
of "Answers in Genesis" for the UK
 Doug Trouten - New
Man Magazine - Sep/Oct, 2005
Darwinism, Evolution, and Racism - Dr. Jerry Bergman
 "Niger" is the Latin
adjective for "black". According to Wikipedia 'Nigger' is a pejorative term and
common ethnic slur against black people, and is English slang. In denoting
'black person', nigger originated as a variant of the Spanish and Portuguese
noun negro (black) derived from the Latin adjective niger (black)."
"SOURCE: "For the Record" by John Bond
 "For the Record" by